Vegetable Science 29, 123-126 ferences in resistance to Phytophthora capsici Leonian in Cucurbita. Pie pumpkins range in many sizes, however, the 5- to 10-pound pie pumpkins are most often grown. The model also predicts that the loss of any single pollinator group will not reduce crop yield in our study system. Third, potential fruit and seed set can be highly reduced through abortion, especially in plants with floral overproduction like pumpkins [24,30,31]. Thus, the system is currently resilient to the decline of either honeybees or bumblebees, but not to the decline of both. Holzschuh A, Steffan-Dewenter I, Tscharntke T. Therefore, we recommend a management strategy for pumpkin that supports and sustains high densities of bees. Recommended cultivars are listed below. 2010. We also observed that pollinator visits were most effective early in the morning when more pollen was available at the anthers for transfer by bees ([19]; electronic supplementary material, figure S1). Fruit mass (g) increased with the number of fully developed seeds (mass = 424.8 + 1.503 seeds; t36 = 3.7, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.25) and tended to increase with increasing pollen deposition (mass = 311.8 + 122.3 × log10(pollen grains); t36 = 1.8, p = 0.077, R2 = 0.06). Stir gently to mix it all together. How to make a Pumpkin Cream Cold Brew: Pour the half and half, monkfruit, pumpkin puree, and pumpkin pie spice in a jar. 2005. After pollinating, the halictid bees were caught when they left the flower and later identified in the laboratory, where their length and intertegular span were measured. Both cranberry and canola have bisexual flowers, each with fairly small numbers of ovules (less than 40). Cumulative pollen deposition was characterized by combining pollen deposition per single flower visit with flower visitation rates [25]. For crops with high pollinator dependence such as pumpkin, yield variability is quite high (approx. According to this relationship, 95% of the maximum level of fruit set (a = 41%) occurs when approximately 2500 pollen grains have been deposited on a flower's stigma (dashed lines). Fitted constants from statistical analyses (see Results) are denoted by α, β and γ. where d¯ A denotes the expected number of pollen grains delivered to a flower's stigma by a honeybee (Apis) visit, with symbols annotated as for equation (2.3). In terms of oil yield, extraction efficiency, and oil qualities, petroleum ether or n-hexane is a good choice of solvent for the extraction of pumpkin seed oils [31]. All statistical analyses were conducted in R v. 3.2.2 [34]. The total pollen load of each male flower was estimated volumetrically from the mean of the subsamples. The U.S. pumpkin market is regarded as limited and seasonal. the proportion of harvestable pumpkins), F, to the expected total pollen accumulation D using the sigmoidal relationship described above (equation (2.1)). In this study, by contrast, we investigated a crop with unisexual flowers and large numbers of ovules (400–700) [13,15]. Based on the average price per pound and average yield per acre, the estimated “average” gross was $1,928 per acre. Pumpkins range in size from less than one pound to more than 1,000 pounds. Thus, our cropping system demonstrates a high level of ‘attack tolerance’ [44] and that wild bumblebees provide ecological insurance [11]. Y% means yield percentage AS means as served (or used) AP means as purchased AS AP AS Y% AP AP Y% AS Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% 56. moschata, a tan-colored (rather than orange), firm-fleshed, and elongated fruit. *Hybrid variety, powdery. To test whether the amount of pollen available at the anthers of flowers declined during anthesis, we used a linear mixed-effect model on a combined dataset with ‘year’ (levels of 2012, 2015) as a random factor (R packages: ‘nlme’, ‘piecewiseSEM’). Giant pumpkins typically range between 25 to 1,000 pounds in size. 311879. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) It is likely that real pollen deposition is somewhat more limited, however, because the stigma's surface becomes eventually saturated with pollen. The likelihood that a flower produced a harvestable pumpkin increased sigmoidally with pollen deposition (equation (2.1): a = 40.52, t9 = 7.53, p < 0.001; b = 2.96, t9 = 36.5, p < 0.001; c = 0.15, t9 = 1.77, p = 0.111; R2 = 0.79; figure 2) and the relationship saturated at a fruit set of 41%. Received 2017 Feb 8; Accepted 2017 May 4. To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Office of Civil Rights, Room 326-W, Whitten Building, 14th and Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20250-9410 or call 202-720-5964. 1. by Amanda McWhirt - October 30, 2017. The yield itself is the percentage of the specified product that is usable. Miniature-sized pumpkins weigh less than one pound, are marketed fresh and typically are used for decorative purposes. The most common variety used for processed pumpkin is Libby’s Select Dickinson, In 2016 the average pumpkin yield per acre among the top six states was 24,100 pounds and ranged considerably from 11,100 to 38,900 pounds. For more Farming information, see Agriculture. Second, we have not considered how the probability of fruit set may vary with plant age. However, at the measured visitation rates, honeybees deposit more pollen per flower than bumblebees. Vidal MdG, de Jong D, Wien HC, Morse RA. Based on observations of 30 non-manipulated plants, the probability of setting a harvestable pumpkin in the first female flower of a plant (80%) could be twice as high as the probability of fruit set in all flowers (41%). Article. How much does agriculture depend on pollinators? Global growth and stability of agricultural yield decrease with pollinator dependence, Pollinator-dependent crops: an increasingly risky business. Get your yield percentage by converting the edible product weight into a percentage. In 54 h of video footage, we observed a total of 2100 individual flower-visitors, of which 79% were honeybees A. mellifera, 14% bumblebees (mainly B. terrestris agg., some B. lapidarius) and 7% halictid bees. Especially, bumblebees should be supported, because their abundance depends on undisturbed natural land offering nesting sites and year-round floral resources, which are not always available near crops in agricultural settings [5,47]. The potential size is determined by the variety grown and growing conditions. Overall, studies like ours could become increasingly important for directing stewardship efforts involving habitat management, landscape modification and the protection of bee habitats within the agricultural landscape. Fall is in the air, and we are celebrating our love of pumpkin with #PumpkinWeek hosted by Terri from Love and Confections and Christie from A Kitchen Hoor's Adventures . 24 cups 7.1 cooked cups per lb. However, we recognize that functional group diversity of bees might nevertheless be important elsewhere. Sales of those items totaled more than $360 million in 2015. VT denotes the proportion of bumblebee visits that occurred in time interval T in the video data (from T1 to T5: 0.08, 0.15, 0.21, 0.26, 0.31). The pollinator fauna was capable of delivering 20 times the necessary amount of pollen. Floral visitors vary in cumulative pollen deposition because of variation in both visitation rates and the amount of pollen transferred during a visit [23,26]. Stir in the flour in three additions, mixing until the dough comes together. S.C.P. Taken together, these findings are consistent with our observation that fruit production in our Hokkaido pumpkin system was very far from pollen-limited. The first female flower is the flower that blooms as the first in the flowering period. Hokkaido fields (3 ± 2.6 ha) in the Upper Rhine Valley between Kandel and Ludwigshafen, Germany (49°4 N, 8°6 E; 49°27 N, 8°28 E). Pollen competition in a natural population of. 2017. This high flower visitation results in our high modelled potential for pollen deposition. Froth 1/4 cup of the cold pumpkin cream. Pumpkin, fresh: 1 lb. Hand-pollination experiments were conducted in one field per year (2014, 2015). A field trial was conducted in the summer of 2017 at the University of Arkansas Southwest Research and Extension Center (SWREC) in Hope, Arkansas that trialed six pumpkin varieties. The study followed the laws and ethical guidelines of Germany. Beat together the butter, sugars, molasses, salt, and pumpkin pie spice until light and creamy. 4 Tip: Certain conditions may affect your yield percentage: • An employee’s skill in cleaning the product will have an enormous effect on the yield percentage – skilled employees will not create as much waste Halictid bees could be distinguished only into two size-defined groups (length ≈ 6 mm and length ≈ 8 mm), each containing several halictid species. We estimated the mass of fruit produced per hectare of crop using the following model: where Y denotes the yield of Hokkaido pumpkins in tonnes per hectare, F is the probability that a flower sets a harvestable pumpkin (related to pollen deposition using equation (2.1)), N denotes the number of female flowers per plant, M denotes the mass of a single Hokkaido pumpkin (t) and P denotes the number of plants (individuals ha−1). Second, the faster handling of bumblebees relative to the other pollinator groups increased their relative effectiveness: in the same time, a honeybee visits one pumpkin flower a bumblebee could visit 12 flowers (similarly [20,41]). As the plant bears both female and male flowers, it is preferable to have a higher percentage of female flowers as this increases the yield. In our case, however, we are dealing with an extraordinarily high level of flower visitation with rates in the range of one visit by a honeybee or bumblebee every 2 min (electronic supplementary material, table S2). Among the cucurbitaceous vegetables, pumpkin (C. moschata) has always been very popular for its high yield, good storage life, longer periods of consumption, high nutritive value, and fitness in transport.C. For each bee group, we tested the following potential explanatory variables for SVD: length (only for halictid bees), handling time, time of day of visit and their interactions, and we dropped non-significant terms (p > 0.1) from final models. Specifically, the halictid bees were separated into two length classes as follows: l = 1, comprising individuals ≈ 6 mm long (i.e. Winfree R, Williams NM, Dushoff J, Kremen C. In the analyses below, we assume that the flower is receptive to pollination for R = 4 h. In order to estimate the expected rate of pollen deposition due to each pollinator group, we had to account for the following four circumstances (see Results): (i) the magnitude of SVD (of bumblebee and honeybee) decreased as the flowers aged; (ii) for bumblebees, the magnitude of SVD increased with the time spent handling the flower, denoted H, and the handling times were much shorter in realistic situations (H = 12 ± 23 s) than in the single visit experiments (H = 151 ± 64 s; t = −29.5, p < 0.001); (iii) for halictid bees, the SVD varied with length of the individual bee, denoted l and (iv) only a proportion of floral visits result in contact with the flower's stigma, denoted s. For modelling purposes, we therefore calculated the expected pollen deposition for a single pollinator visit in equation (2.2), di, as a weighted average for each pollinator group using only significant terms from statistical analyses (see Results) as follows. Honeybees most likely originated from apiaries in the region, but no hives were found within 70 m of the pumpkin fields. Sensitivity of commercial pumpkin yield to potential decline among different groups of pollinating bees, GUID: 219F0680-05F7-45C4-AF2D-44D108C14F8D, Performance indicators of the Hokkaido pumpkin pollination system and its component pollinators, GUID: F14AA7C8-B1B8-4DE1-903C-C680EFFB66AA, Influence of time of day on single visit deposition and pollen supply in male flowers, GUID: A02FB056-682C-447F-9C59-96415F957283. Keywords: medicinal pumpkin, oil yield, plant growth regulator, planting method Introduction Research on crop seeds in the entire world indicated that seeds contain a high percentage of protein and espe-cially oil that … Thus, for maximum seed set, approximately four pollen grains per ovule are necessary, which corresponds fairly closely with Cruden's Rule [16,36]. The contribution to pollen accumulation of bee group i, Di, is therefore given by: We relate crop performance (i.e. Each pumpkin plant produces several consecutive female flowers during the flowering period. The aim of this study was to analyse the cumulative pollen deposition of honeybees (A. mellifera) and two kinds of wild bee groups, namely bumblebees (mainly Bombus terrestris agg., which include B. terrestris, Bombus lucorum and rarely Bombus cryptarum) and halictid bees (several species, mainly of the genus Lasioglossum), as pollinators of pumpkin. Nectar and pollen production in pumpkin (, R: a language and environment for statistical computing. From the videos, we extracted for each bee group the visitation rates and their flower handling time (H = the entire duration the bee spent on and in the flower, from landing until leaving). The U.S. annual per capita use of pumpkin was 4.6 pounds per person in 2016. A robust procedure for comparing multiple means under heteroscedasticity in unbalanced designs. 2013 year production. For our calculations, we assumed: N = 6 female flowers per plant based on field observations on 30 plants; M = 0.001 tonne per fruit because 1 kg is the optimal weight for the market; and P = 10 000 plants ha−1 based on responses to farmer questionnaires (n = 35 fields, data not shown). (n = 42) and halictid bees (Halictini, size: 5–10 mm, more than 50% Lasioglossum malachurum, n = 33). Depending on the cultivar grown, pumpkins are available from late August through October. During a single flower visit, an average bumblebee, honeybee or halictid bee deposits an expected number of pollen grains of d¯ B=864, d¯ A=260 or d¯ H=16, respectively (electronic supplementary material, table S2). For each replicate, one single bee was allowed or engineered to visit one virgin bagged female flower. After the pollen grains had sedimented by centrifugation, the supernatant was removed with a micropipette and glycerol 50% was added to the pollen pellet to make up 5 ml (in 2012) and 1 ml (in 2015) (based on Vidal et al. Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. All authors participated in the design of the study and gave final approval for publication. In general, smaller bee species have longer handling times, probably because of their lower nectar extraction rate owing to the shorter proboscis length and the lower body mass [26]. Similar to other crops pollinated by honeybees and bumblebees [6,11], bumblebees were the most effective pollinators of pumpkin per flower visit, probably for three reasons. the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. This pumpkin millet porridge is comfort in a bowl. Thank you to Bob’s Red Mill for sponsoring this post! Honey bee as effective pollinating agent of pumpkin, Effects of honey bee pollination on pumpkin fruit and seed yield. 13.2%) . Starchy Food. For transferring different amounts of pollen to the stigma, we initially (2014) created five levels of pollen deposition by dissecting single anthers into parts of different sizes (electronic supplementary material, table S1). Fresh leaf yield of fluted pumpkin. Pumpkin, fresh: 1 lb. Whip up a batch today! The name is most commonly used for cultivars of Cucurbita pepo, but some cultivars of Cucurbita maxima, C. argyrosperma, and C. moschata with similar appearance are also sometimes called "pumpkin". Rapid and effective pollinator visits are therefore vital to maximize yields. Functional group diversity of bee pollinators increases crop yield, Stability of pollination services decreases with isolation from natural areas despite honey bee visits, Wild pollinators enhance fruit set of crops regardless of honey bee abundance. When around 2500 pollen grains were deposited, 95% of this maximum fruit set was obtained (figure 2). Importance of conserving alternative pollinators: assessing the pollination efficiency of the squash bee. Rabbit: 1 average: 1 1/2 cups cooked meat. and Bombus lapidarius were identified from the videos, and (iii) halictid bees. Klein A-M, Vaissière BE, Cane JH, Steffan-Dewenter I, Cunningham SA, Kremen C, Tscharntke T. [33]). Three bee groups were distinguished: (i) honeybees A. mellifera, (ii) bumblebees = B. terrestris agg. The set is designed to encourage group ... • If the percentage is slightly less than 85 of the 100 seeds, ... • Timely weeding will lead to increases in the yield. handling time (log-transformed) and visitation rate, varied among bee groups using multiple pairwise comparisons. Furthermore, all investigated pollinators only collected nectar, but did not harvest pollen in male flowers. ... Chemistry, 22.06.2019 09:00. carried out field and laboratory work; J.S. Importantly, pumpkin received more than enough visits of honeybee and bumblebee in our region. 2006. Approximately 15 percent of the pumpkin acreage is used to make processed pumpkin products. Best models were selected using Akaike's information coefficient (R package ‘MASS’). Ordway E, Buchmann SL, Kuehl RO, Shipman CW. Data shown are Mean ± SE. Stephenson AG, Devlin B, Horton JB. Alternative pollinator taxa are equally efficient but not as effective as the honeybee in a mass flowering crop. Even the leaves of pumpkins can be cooked and eaten. Virtually, all visits by bumblebees (s = 99%) and honeybees (95%) resulted in contacts with the stigma. Unlike smaller cucurbit fruits like squash, Hokkaido pumpkins and other larger pumpkins may have higher pollination requirements, but fail to achieve a fruit from every flower even when these are met, because the individual plants lack sufficient resources to invariably produce a marketable fruit [39]. The various agriculture information about the … Most pumpkins are sold in local markets or directly to consumers primarily for ornamental purposes, especially during the Halloween season. New: Enterprise Budget for Vegetables, Iowa State University Farm Food and Enterprise Development, Nutritive Value of Foods (USDA ARS, 2002), Organic Pumpkin and Winter Squash Marketing and Production (ATTRA, 2010). First, bumblebees transfer the most pollen owing to their large body size [4,21] and densely hairy coat [40]. Based on these data, we modelled the contribution of each pollinator group to crop yield and investigated the potential impact of reductions in bee abundance. 2000. Illinois remains the leading processed pumpkin producing state, producing more than the other 5 leading states combined and about half of the national total. (1750 ÷ 2500) × 100 = 70% for the tenderloin (5000 ÷ 7750) × 100 = 64.51% for the salmon (400 ÷ 750) × 100 = 53.33% for the canned tuna Stir well, and taste the sangria, adding more pumpkin pie syrup until it reaches your desired level of sweetness and spice (I like about 1 1/2 cups). Data from: Sensitivity of commercial pumpkin yield to potential decline among different groups of pollinating bees, The number of pollen grains deposited in single visits to flowers by the pollinator groups in our study, or SVD. In temperate regions, mainly honeybees are used for managed crop pollination outdoors. Reliance on just honeybees increases the risk of uneconomic yields, because it uses only a single species. Nicodemo D, Couto RHN, Malheiros EB, de Jong D. We are grateful to Matthias Kitt for his help in bee species identification, Julius Krebs, Katharina Noster, Kerstin Trappmann and Elena Will for support in the field and laboratory, and Eduard Szöcs for his valuable suggestions on statistical analysis. 2007. Hand-pollination was done between 7.00 and 11.00 to ensure pollen viability and stigma receptivity. Given the high variability of pollen numbers in deposits obtained with this method, we changed the method in 2015, when we used a metal wire (tip diameter 1 mm) or a nail head (diameter 2.4 mm) in several repetitions and combinations to transfer seven levels of pollen to stigmas (electronic supplementary material, table S1). Thus, high pollination levels must be ensured to increase yield stability [9]. In order to model the cumulative pollen deposition of a certain bee group i, let vi denote the visitation rate of bee group i (visits flower−1 h−1) during the flower lifetime of R h. Let each single visit by bee group i deposit di pollen grains. This time we’ll use the formula for cost, not weight: EP cost = AP cost / yield; Enter in the known variables: EP cost = $2.00 AP cost of the raw pumpkin / 0.43 yield; Solve: EP cost = $4.65 cost of the edible portion of the pumpkin. Aizen MA, Garibaldi LA, Cunningham SA, Klein AM. Furthermore, honeybees are likely to be more susceptible than indigenous wild bees to stressors such as diseases, because the human breeding reduced their genetic diversity [10]. Each field was investigated three times, once in each one time period during the flowering period (2–6, 15–17, 23–25 of July 2014), and once at 07.00, 08.30 and 10.00, respectively. Nicodemo D, Nogueira Couto RH, Malheiros EB, de Jong D. Bumblebee and honeybee are clearly the key to pollination success of pumpkins in Germany, underlining that crop pollination is often delivered by a few common species in intensified agricultural landscapes [45]. Author for correspondence: Sonja C. Pfister e-mail: Electronic supplementary material is available online at. At the beginning of September, the pumpkins were harvested from the experimentally pollinated flowers and the fruit mass plus the number of fully developed seeds were measured. First, the pollen loads delivered by bees can vary greatly. Pumpkins of almost any variety have flesh high in fiber and beta carotene. • Timely weeding minimizes competition for food and light Finally, we encourage the adaptation of our quantitative approach to other pollinator-dependent crops such as almonds, citrus and apple in order to determine their resilience to potential pollinator decline in different regions. As individuals, bumblebees are also more effective pollinators than honeybees owing to their faster handling of flowers. 1 medium: Pumpkin, fresh: 5 lbs. The formula is EP weight ÷ AP weight × 100 = yield %. We declare we have no competing interests. The separation of male and female flowers confers a high degree of pollinator-dependence on the crop, because mechanisms of autonomous (within-flower) pollination such as seen in canola [28] are impossible, and the large number of ovules initially suggests a need for delivering numerous pollen grains to stigmas. (You need 24 cups.) According to Ne'eman et al. (a) The estimated attainable yield (y-axis: percentage of harvestable pumpkin fruits relative to extant levels) in relation to the rate of flower visits per flower lifetime (x-axis: rate of visits as a percentage of extant intensity) by either honeybees (solid line) or bumblebees (dashed line-dotted). We therefore estimate that pumpkin yield was not pollination-limited in our study region and that it is currently fairly resilient to single declines of honeybees or wild bumblebees. Add the flavor of fall to your coffee, pancakes, and cocktails using this homemade Pumpkin Spice Syrup! For example, bananas, at a 68% yield, means that you throw away 32% of the banana (the peel), use the other 68% of it, and obviously pay for the whole thing. where the proportion of visits due to each of two length classes, l = 1 and l = 2, are denoted by Vl, the size-specific probability of stigma contact is denoted sl and the per visit pollen deposition of each size class is denoted by dl. Flowers were bagged prior to anthesis and again after the single visit with a synthetic mesh bag (mesh size ≈1 mm2) to exclude further pollinator visits. In order to determine the amount of pollen in anthers, the pollen was washed off the anthers with 70% ethanol. enhancing growth and yield of medicinal pumpkin. Much like squash blossoms, pumpkin blossoms can also be stuffed and eaten. However, it should be taken into account that in our region, cucurbit crops are grown in moderate field sizes (3 ha), that they comprise only a small proportion of all cropping area (on average 9 ha pumpkin in 1 km radius) and that few other pollen and nectar resources were available to bees during the bloom of the pumpkin fields (S.C.P. = 6900, n = 8). The pollen deposition of a honeybee visit decreased significantly over the course of the morning (grains = 10(4.44–5.54T); t41 = −3.4, p = 0.0015, R2 = 0.20) (electronic supplementary material, figure S1a). For example, wild bees can be more effective pollinators than honeybees and can increase the fruit set of a wide variety of important cash crops such as almond, spring rape, strawberry, watermelon, cucumber and squash [6]. We could not visually verify the contact with the stigma by halictid bees while they were descending and ascending the flower, but we assume that they did make contact if they reached the nectaries. For crops with high pollinator dependence such as pumpkin, yield variability is quite high (approx. The small halictid bees (l1) deposited only eight pollen grains per visit (s.d. 1300 pollen grains; [19–21]) and Cucurbita foetidissima (minimum 50 pollen grains, maximum greater than 900 pollen grains; [16,37]) and in contrast with other Cucurbita species, fruit set does not reach 100% even under optimal pollination [38]. The rate of flower visits by honeybees (123 visits/flower lifetime) was significantly higher than by bumblebees (21 visits/flower lifetime; t = 18.5, p < 0.001) and halictid bees (11 visits/flower lifetime; t = 20.2, p < 0.001). equations (2.1) and (2.6)) indicates that 90% of attainable crop yield requires a cumulative pollen deposition equivalent to 11% of the extant bumblebee intensity (=2 bumblebee visits/flower lifetime) or 7% of the extant honeybee intensity (=8 honeybee visits) or 1100% of the extant halictid bee density (=123 halictid bee visits; figure 3). Business and Economic Concepts and Principles, Opportunities for Value-added Agriculture, Renewable Energy - Related Websites and News Sources, Ethanol - Related Websites and News Sources, Biodiesel - Related Websites and News Sources, Feedstocks - Related Websites and News Sources, Energy Efficiency - Related Websites and News Sources, Value-Added Grants Help Dairy Family Realize A Dream, Value-Added Grant Jumpstarts a Minnesota Creamery, Value-Added Grant Helps Iowa Creamery Expand, Value-Added Grant Helps Missouri Farm Focus on Quality Products, 2016 National Value Added Agriculture Conference, 2017 National Value Added Agriculture Conference, Organic Pumpkin and Winter Squash Marketing and Production. Outlier ( probably a technical anomaly, bumblebee ; figure 1 ) measured rates! 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Average: 1 lb groups of bees might nevertheless be important elsewhere heterogeneous and., Sikorski J, Kremen C. 2007 the approximately 4 h interval of receptivity... Visits by bumblebees ( s = 99 % ) resulted in contacts with the display of certain parts an. ÷ AP weight × 100 = 85 % reading '' features already built.... Pollen deposition per single flower visit with flower visitation rates, honeybees deposit more pollen per than... Unbalanced designs climate with annual mean temperatures around 11°C and 700 mm of annual on... Deposit more pollen than halictid bees ( l2 ) deposited only eight pollen (. And growing conditions you to Bob ’ s Red Mill for sponsoring post... C. 2007 shape both halves into disks, wrap in plastic, and cocktails using this pumpkin!